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11/24/2006

The Write Stuff

Ballpoint_pen                    Did ballpoint pens really revolutionise writing?

Fifty-seven Bic Biros are sold every second (and then "borrowed" by passing colleagues) - not bad for a 60-year-old product. But did the pens really make that much of a difference?

It was a familiar frustration that led to the invention of the modern ball-point pen - leaky ink.

In 1938, Hungarian newspaper journalist Laszlo Biro noticed the ink used on the printing presses dried quickly and so tried using it in a fountain pen to avoid the problem of leaks, blots and smudges.

But the ink was too thick to flow into the nib. So Biro, with the help of his brother, a chemist, devised a pen tipped with a metal ball bearing that used capillary action to draw ink through the rotating ball.

Ballpoint_pen_1 They brought their invention with them when they fled to the West during a crackdown on Jews later that year. A British firm took over the patent to produce pens for the RAF, and the first Biros went on sale in the UK 60 years ago this week.

Barring tweaks and improvements, the pen is still recognisable as the ball-point Biro devised to make writing easier, and it regularly features in top 100 design lists, says Libby Sellers, the curator of the Design Museum.

"It has worked so well for so long that you stop noticing it. It does what it says it should be doing, like the paper clip and the Post-It note."

Aaa5_480

                                     I've never liked the 'feel' of a ballpoint. I prefer these.o

                                        Ballpoint Pen Artist: Dave Archambault

               Ballpoint_pen_art

                 Did Biros really revolutionise writing?
By Megan Lane

Biros
Happy birthday, one and all
Fifty-seven Bic Biros are sold every second (and then "borrowed" by passing colleagues) - not bad for a 60-year-old product. But did the pens really make that much of a difference?

It was a familiar frustration that led to the invention of the modern ball-point pen - leaky ink.

In 1938, Hungarian newspaper journalist Laszlo Biro noticed the ink used on the printing presses dried quickly and so tried using it in a fountain pen to avoid the problem of leaks, blots and smudges.

But the ink was too thick to flow into the nib. So Biro, with the help of his brother, a chemist, devised a pen tipped with a metal ball bearing that used capillary action to draw ink through the rotating ball.

They brought their invention with them when they fled to the West during a crackdown on Jews later that year. A British firm took over the patent to produce pens for the RAF, and the first Biros went on sale in the UK 60 years ago this week.

Barring tweaks and improvements, the pen is still recognisable as the ball-point Biro devised to make writing easier, and it regularly features in top 100 design lists, says Libby Sellers, the curator of the Design Museum.

"It has worked so well for so long that you stop noticing it. It does what it says it should be doing, like the paper clip and the Post-It note."

But was it revolutionary? "That's a big word, but it made writing easier. No longer did you need to worry about ink spills or refills. To be mobile and reliable are two amazing things to be able to accommodate into such a small and humble object.

"What is remarkable is Biro's lateral thinking in bringing existing technologies together to create an everyday object that everyone could write with. Ball bearings already existed. Quick-drying ink already existed. And so did roller-balls, in deodorants."

Pen or pencil?

Among the first Britons to use the pens were the RAF's fighter pilots, for whom the pens proved something of a revelation.

"Fountain pens can explode or at least leak at high altitudes, so to have a reliable pen with you in the cockpit to note down important markers helped win the war," says Miss Sellers.

What about pencils? "You have to sharpen pencils, they're not as user-friendly."

There is an old and oft-repeated rumour that because standard pens don't work in zero-gravity, Nasa spent millions devising a space pen, while the Russians used pencils.

But this has been debunked, not least because - strange to say - pencils pose dangers in space, from broken-off tips floating about and graphite and wood being flammable in a pure oxygen atmosphere. And it was not Nasa which developed the space pen, but inventor Paul Fisher, and it was adopted by both sides in the space race by 1968.

Fit for purpose

While not the first everyday object in which manufacturers made a priority of user convenience, the Bic Biro is a fine example of what happens when an object is designed to make something that is easy to use.

I get asked to do artworks on trainers and T-shirts, so it's great that it doesn't wash off
"If a designer thinks about how it works and what are all the qualifications that might entail, they're asking the right questions," says Miss Sellers.

Nor does she see the pens being superseded by technology. Yes, a passing thought can easily be typed into a handheld device or a text message, but a ball-point doesn't need batteries to work. It needs ink, but most have long since been lost, borrowed or stolen before running out.

The one thing that hasn't been cracked is washable ink - as anyone who has inadvertently left a ball-point pen in a pocket will attest. For artist Jon Burgerman, who specialises in Biro works (see Internet links, right), that is part of the pen's charm.

"It's the ingenious rolling of that little ball. If you put one in your bag without a lid, you're asking for it.

"I like that the ink's indelible - I get asked to do artworks on trainers and T-shirts, so it's great that it doesn't wash off. It's easy to customise stuff without bothering with fabric paints. That's invaluable for me, as a poor artist. I like Biros, pens are my friends."  Link

.                                                              How to build it.

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Comments

The most common causes of fountain pen leakage is poor maintenance: the pen is not cleaned and lubricated properly. Cheap pens often cannot be lubricated and this contributes to the second cause which is mechanical. Both fountain pens and ball points (and most pens) depend on air intake to regulate ink flow. The design of many fountain pens, especially the inexpensive ones, is more sensitive than that of ball points.
Testing has repeatedly demonstrated that skipping and blotting are less frequent with fountain pens that are well designed and maintained than with ball points. In addition, only one manufacturer of ball points offers archival ink.

I prefer a quill.........

I like the idea of not having to clean my pen form time to time. Bic's are quick, easy and painless.

Biros are great for stabbing people in the eye.

The only reason I'd ever wash a pen is if I leant it to someone. People stick them in their mouths as they think. Like... 'hmmm, is this a run-on sentence'? Pen goes in the mouth.

The smoother the roller, the better. I used to have a Parker T-Ball Jotter. Fourteen years I had that pen and used it as a teacher no less. Students are always borrowing pens. I never leant that one. Someone made off with it eventually. The felt-tip pens make my teeth walk around in my head, so I can't touch one of those. Fountain pens give me the willies. Like scratching your finger on a blackboard. The smoother, the better...... I also like the fat, curved ones they're making now. Very comfy.

60 years, huh?

That explains the constantly clogged ink...

love to see someone else drawing with ballpoint pen.
check out my site
www.illpipe.com
and look at "College Work."
I think you'll dig it.
I earned 14 independent study credits at Iowa State University with a ballpoint pen.

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